Logistics & freights

When exporting ensure you understand the basic terms of shipping (including pricing and documentation). You must also understand the responsibilities of the major players for safe delivery of your products to buyers. Such  details include: duration of shipment, transport modes, conditions required for different products and the agreed terms of trade.


Five tips

  1. Understand the importance of freight forwarding for a seamless export process
  2. Know the available range of logistics options
  3. Conduct due diligence in engaging a freight forwarder
  4. Know how to apply INCOTERMS (2010) in order to quote your price for delivery correctly
  5. Familiarise yourself with export documents and documentation process for logistics


Freight forwarders & Custom Brokers

It is extremely important that you identify experienced custom brokers and freight forwarders. This would ensure that your products get to the buyer via the most appropriate conditions, costs and routes. Familiarise yourself with different transport modes required to deliver the goods to the buyer. In order to be well prepared please:

  • conduct research on at least three freight forwarders / custom brokers
  • visit the online database of freight forwarders, custom brokers and cargo agents in Nigeria



INCOTERMS is an acronym for International Commercial Terms. These are recognised terms in international business transactions. It provides details on the responsibilities of buyers and exporters. The terms are important for the processing of shipping and payment documents during exports. Basically, INCOTERMS defines all obligations of buyers and sellers within the logistics chain.

The picture below (source: clearly outlines these obligations under different agreements. It specifies the responsibilities of the buyer and the seller per agreement including the point of transferring the obligations (transfer of risk).

INCOTERMS 2010 - NEPC Nigeria

For detailed explanations on INCOTERMS and the different possibilities, find out everything you need to know on the INCOTERMS rules.


Getting paid

To ensure prompt payment after delivering the specified product to your buyer, take into account the following tips;

  • Familiarize yourself with the different modes of payments
  • Letter of Credit (LC) is a more secured mode of payment
  • To receive payment all delivery conditions mentioned on the LC must be satisfied
  • Be sure that you can adhere to all the requirements and requested documents listed in the LC
  • Discuss suitability of different options with your bankers / financial advisers

Always undertake due diligence on your buyers before exporting!


Freightnet is an online database of
  • freight forwarders,
  • custom brokers and
  • cargo agents (in Nigeria).

ICC Incoterms rules 2010

International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) provides information about the incoterms rules. These rules have become an essential part of the daily language of trade. They have been incorporated in contracts for the sale of goods worldwide and provide rules and guidance to importers, exporters, lawyers, transporters and insurers.